Changing signals

‘ Chemical, physical, and microbial changes that surround all multicellular life on Earth are translated into changes in mitochondrial structure and function.
  These changes in mitochondria are used to signal safety or danger in the cell, alter gene expression, trigger the healing response, and adjust fitness and susceptibility to chronic illness.
  These changes even help to adjust the rate of aging in response to environmental stress.
  The term CDR was originally coined to include all levels of the organismal response to stress, including inflammation, immunity, metabolism, microbiome, epigenetics, behavior and memory.
  Some aspects of the CDR are studied independently and called the integrated stress response (ISR) and the mitochondrial ISR. ‘
Perspective: Cell danger response Biology—The new science that connects environmental health with mitochondria and the rising tide of chronic illness
Robert K.Naviaux

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